This chapter focuses on the legal and regulatory frameworks within which ape hunters, traders and consumers operate, and considers how they may be applied at international and national levels to disrupt or ban the use of and trade in live apes, their parts and their meat.
The chapter begins by examining national laws governing the protection of species; the conditions under which individuals may be removed from the wild, bred, held in captivity and transported; permission and reporting requirements; fines and penalties; and domestic legislation implementing a country’s obligations under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This section also draws on a detailed analysis of relevant legislation in 17 ape range states by the legal intelligence firm Legal Atlas.
The second section of the chapter examines legal frameworks regulating the trade in apes outside their countries of origin, with the main legal framework of relevance being CITES. It also reviews other international organizations with the power—and occasionally the resources—to pursue law enforcement across borders.